GaAs MMIC Reliability – High Temperature Behavior

GaAs MMIC Reliability – High Temperature Behavior

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The gallium arsenide monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) is a developing circuit technology which plays a key role in both military and commercial microwave systems. Due to the required high power dissipation, the microwave monolithic technology must operate in temperatures in excess of 150°C and often above 200°C. The purpose of this book is to (1) address the issues affecting the reliability and the manufacture of GaAs MMICs and (2) present the industrial status (through an industrial database) in addressing such issues as yield, throughput, design rules, chip architecture, reliability, design for yield and manufacturability, substrate qualification, choice of processing technology and current status of process related models and sensitivity analysis. The analysis and discussion of reliability problems for optical interconnects is also presented.

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The gallium arsenide monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) is a developing circuit technology which plays a key role in both military and commercial microwave systems. Due to the required high power dissipation, the microwave monolithic technology must operate in temperatures in excess of 150°C and often above 200°C. The purpose of this book is to (1) address the issues affecting the reliability and the manufacture of GaAs MMICs and (2) present the industrial status (through an industrial database) in addressing such issues as yield, throughput, design rules, chip architecture, reliability, design for yield and manufacturability, substrate qualification, choice of processing technology and current status of process related models and sensitivity analysis. The analysis and discussion of reliability problems for optical interconnects is also presented.

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Table of Contents

1 Introduction to the High Temperature Reliability Issues of MMICs 1
  1.1 Background 1
  1.2 State-Of-The-Art of MMIC High Temperature Behavior 3
  1.3 Chapter Outline 5
References 9
2 MMICs and Monte Carlo Technique 13
  2.1 Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits for High Temperatures 13
    2.1.1 MMIC Status 13
    2.1.2 MMIC Performance 14
    2.1.3 MMIC Applications 15
  2.2 Monte Carlo Techniques for Design and High Temperature Prediction 16
    2.2.1 Introduction To Monte Carlo Methods 16
    2.2.2 High Temperature Reliability Simulations by Monte Carlo Techniques 18
References 21
3 MMIC High Temperature Reliability 25
  3.1 Introduction 25
  3.2 Mmic High Temperature Reliability Mathematics 27
  3.3 Investigations of MMIC Reliability 33
  3.4 Concerns of High Temperature MMIC Reliability 35
References 39
4 High Temperature Modeling and Thermal Characteristics of GaAs MESFETs 43
  4.1 Introduction 43
  4.2 State-Of-The-Art for Modeling High Temperature Characteristics 45
  4.3 Chapter Outline and Objectives 46
  4.4 Physical Properties of MESFETs at Elevated Temperatures 46
    4.4.1 Gallium Arsenide 47
    4.4.2 Energy Gaps and Intrinsic Carrier Densities 47
  4.5 Carrier Mobilities and Saturation Velocity 51
  4.6 Modeling of MESFETs 56
    4.6.1 Introduction 56
    4.6.2 Principles of MESFET Operation 57
    4.6.3 Linear Region of MESFET Characteristics 58
    5.6.4 Saturation Region Model 59
  4.7 Empirical MESFET Model 60
  4.8 Temperature Related Properties of GaAs Mesfet 64
References 69
5 Computer Simulation and Electrical Measurements of The GaAs MESFET
Temperature Dependence
71
  5.1 Introduction to the Simulation of Temperature Dependence 71
  5.2 Simulation Results for the MESFET 73
    5.2.1 Comparison of MESFET Simulation: Hyperbolic and
Quadratic Model
73
    5.2.2 Simulation Results of the ZTC Bias Point Of GaAs MESFET 82
    5.2.3 Temperature Dependent Characteristics of The GaAs MESFET 94
    5.2.4 Electrical Measurement at Elevated Temperatures 103
  5.3 Thermal Measurements of GaAs Devices Using IR Microscopy
Techniques
107
    5.3.1 Operation Principle of The IR Microscope 107
    5.3.2 IR Microscopy Measurement Results 108
  5.4 Finite Element Analysis of Heat Transfer in The GaAs MESFET 110
    5.4.1 General Mathematical Assumptions and Model 111
    5.4.2 Simulation Results and Comparison with Measurements 111
  5.5 Summary and Conclusions 114
6 Temperature Effects of MMIC Heterostructure GaAs Transistors
and Circuits
119
  6.1 Introduction 119
  6.2 Physical Properties of AlGaAs/GaAs HFET 120
    6.2.1 AlGaAs/GaAs HFET Device Structures 120
    6.2.2 Principles of HFET Operation 121
    6.2.3 Modulation Doping 122
  6.3 Aim-Spice HFET Model 123
    6.3.1 HFET Model for Aim-Spice Input File 124
    6.3.2 Current-Voltage Model Used by Aim-Spice 124
  6.4 Current-Voltage Characteristics of AlGaAs/GaAs HFET 128
    6.4.1 Intrinsic Current-Voltage Characteristics 128
    6.4.2 Extrinsic Current-Voltage Characteristics 129
  6.5 Temperature Dependent Characteristics of HFET 133
    6.5.1 Energy Gap and Intrinsic Carrier Concentration 133
    6.5.3 Saturation Velocity and Electron Mobility 138
    6.5.4 Temperature Dependence of Current – Voltage Characteristics 143
References 147
7 High Temperature Behavior of The GaAs MMIC HFET Inverter 149
  7.1 Introduction 149
  7.2 Inverter Circuits 149
    7.2.1 Basic Inverter 149
    7.2.2 Direct-Coupled FET Logic (DCFL) Inverter 150
    7.2.3 Buffered FET Logic (BFL) Inverter 152
  7.3 Failure Mechanisms of AlGaAs/GaAs HFET at Elevated Temperatures 153
    7.3.1 Interdiffusion 153
  7.4 Kink Effect 158
  7.5 Ohmic Contact Resistance Increase 159
  7.6 Thermal Runaway Effect 160
  7.7 Gate Degradation 160
  7.8 Conclusions 163
References 165
8 Design Optimization Of GaAs MMIC High Temperature Electronic
Packaging
167
  8.1 Introduction 167
  8.2 Design Constraints Imposed by Temperatures 168
    8.2.1 Die Information 168
    8.2.2 Mounting Platform Technology Information 169
  8.3 High Temperature Packaging Design Goals 169
    8.3.1 Performance 169
    8.3.2 Reliability 170
  8.4 Applying The High Temperature Design Guidelines 170
    8.4.1 Die To Lead Interconnect 172
    8.4.2 Lead 173
    8.4.3 Case 173
    8.4.4 Die and Substrate Attach 174
    8.4.5 Lead Seals 175
    8.4.6 Lid and Lid Seal 175
  8.5 High Temperature Electronic Package 176
References 182
9 MMIC High Temperature Testing Methodology and Analysis 185
  9.1 Introduction to Arrhenius Model 185
  9.2 Accelerated Life Tests 189
    9.2.1 Introduction 189
References 193
10 MMIC Circuit High Temperature Analysis 195
  10.1 MMIC Circuit Modeling for High Temperature Design 195
    10.1.1 Introduction 195
    10.1.2 Operation Principles of MESFET 196
    10.1.3 Theoretical I-V Characteristics of GaAs MESFET 200
    10.1.4 GaAs MESFET Spice3 Model [17-20] 203
  10.2 MMIC Spice Circuit Analysis 209
    10.2.1 Spice Analysis For MMICs 209
      10.2.1.1 Transimpedance Amplifier (TIA) 210
      10.2.1.2 Eg-6101 Low-Noise Amplifier 212
  10.3 The Methodology to Determine the Correlation Matrix of MMICs 213
    10.3.1 Introduction to Correlation Mathematics 213
    10.3.2 Statistical Model for the Correlation Between MMIC Devices 215
    10.3.3 The Methodology to Estimate the Correlation Of MMICs 216
References 221
11 Monte Carlo High Temperature Reliability Model for MMICs 225
  11.1 Introduction 225
  11.2 The Methodology to Estimate MMIC High Temperature Performance 225
    11.2.1 The Joint Probability Method via Monte Carlo Simulation 225
    11.2.2 The Non-Markovian Method via Monte Carlo Simulation 227
    11.2.3 The MMIC Monte Carlo Technique 228
  11.3 MMIC Circuit Reliability Model 228
    11.3.1 The Given Conditions for MMIC Reliability Model 228
    11.3.2 Procedures to Model MMIC Reliability 231
    11.3.3 Validation of MMIC High Temperature Model 238
      11.3.3.1 Eg-6101 LNA and TIA High Temperature Analysis 238
      11.3.3.2 Eg-6010 LNA and Eg-6203 Power Amplifier Reliability
Analysis
241
      11.3.3.3 Simulation Results 241
References 245
Index 247