Techniques to Evaluate Long-Term Aging of Systems (LAST)

  • Techniques to Evaluate Long-Term Aging of Systems (LAST)

Techniques to Evaluate Long-Term Aging of Systems (LAST)

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The objective of this report is to highlight the impact of long-term aging effects on parts, assemblies and equipments by investigating characteristics of aging as they impact specific material classes.

The report is broken down into the following sections:

Section 2 addresses general environmental design considerations for aging during in-service conditions;

Section 3 discusses aging factors as they relate to ferrous and non-ferrous metals;

Section 4 provides an overview of aging as it applies to polymer materials;

Section 5 covers general reliability design considerations and appropriate tasks/techniques.

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Product Description

The Reliability Information Analysis Center mission has continued to evolve over the years, with the greater recognition that reliability, maintainability, and quality are critical military system and commercial product attributes. Coincident with this evolution has been the recognition that these attributes have much more encompassing impacts than their specific attained metrics. For example, where at one time the measure of reliability called mean-time-between-failure (MTBF) was of interest in itself, now management and system planners have expanded their interest because of how that MTBF impacts such issues as sustainability and total ownership costs. Part of the refocusing of reliability-related needs is the concern over long-term aging effects on systems in operation and in storage brought about by systems having to last longer. The objective of this report is to highlight the impact of long-term aging effects on parts, assemblies and equipments by investigating characteristics of aging as they impact specific material classes. The report is broken down into the following sections: Section 2 addresses general environmental design considerations for aging during in-service conditions; Section 3 discusses aging factors as they relate to ferrous and non-ferrous metals; Section 4 provides an overview of aging as it applies to polymer materials; and Section 5 covers general reliability design considerations and appropriate tasks/techniques.

Additional information

ISBN:

978-1-933904-34-4

Product Format:

Download, Hardcopy

Table of Contents

1. Introduction 1
2. General Design Considerations for In-Service Conditions 1
  2.1. Desert Environments 2
    2.1.1 Temperatures 2
    2.1.2 Solar Radiation (UV) 4
    2.1.3 Dust (Airborne and Ground) 5
    2.1.4 Thermal Temperature Cycling 6
    2.1.5 Humidity 6
    2.1.6 Chemical 7
    2.1.7 Compatibility 7
    2.1.8 Interactions 7
  2.2 Arctic Environments 7
    2.2.1 Temperature 7
    2.2.2 Solar Radiation (UV) 8
    2.2.3 Dust (Airborne and Ground) 9
    2.2.4 Thermal Cycling 9
    2.2.5 Humidity 9
    2.2.6 Chemical 11
    2.2.7 Compatibility 11
    2.2.8 Interactions 12
  2.3 Tropical Environments 12
    2.3.1 Temperature 12
    2.3.2 Solar Radiation (UV) 12
    2.3.3 Dust (Airborne and Ground) 13
    2.3.4 Thermal Cycling 13
    2.3.5 Humidity 14
    2.3.6 Chemical 14
    2.3.7 Compatibility 15
    2.3.8 Interactions 15
3. Aging Factors Related to Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Metals 15
  3.1 Properties of Metals 15
    3.1.2 Metal Basics 15
  3.2 Failure Modes and Mitigation Techniques 18
    3.2.1 Yielding 18
    3.2.2 Elastic Deformation 21
    3.2.3 Brinelling 21
    3.2.4 False Brinelling 22
    3.2.5 Brittle Fracture 23
    3.2.6 Ductile Fracture 24
    3.2.7 Buckling 25
    3.2.8 Creep 25
    3.2.9 Galling 26
    3.2.10 Spalling 27
    3.2.11 Wear 28
    3.2.12 Fatigue 29
    3.2.13 Corrosion 32
      3.2.13.1 Uniform Corrosion 33
      3.2.13.2 Galvanic Corrosion 36
      3.2.13.3 Crevice Corrosion 42
      3.2.13.4 Pitting Corrosion 44
      3.2.13.5 Stress Corrosion Cracking 47
      3.2.13.6 Corrosion Fatigue 55
      3.2.13.7 Intergranular Corrosion 57
      3.2.13.8 Selective leaching 59
      3.2.13.9 Erosion corrosion 60
      3.2.13.10 Exfoliation 61
      3.2.13.11 Microbiological Influenced Corrosion (MIC) 62
      3.2.13.12 Filiform Corrosion 64
      3.2.13.13 Hydrogen Damage 65
      3.2.13.14 Hot Corrosion 65
4. Polymers 69
  4.1 What is a Polymer 69
    4.1.1 Monomers and Macromolecules 70
    4.1.2 Thermoplastics, Thermosets and Elastomers 71
      4.1.2.1 Blends 72
      4.1.2.2 Crystalline or Amorphous 72
      4.1.2.3 Molecular Weight 73
      4.1.2.4 Formation Process 73
      4.1.2.5 Process Considerations for Curing Thermosets 74
      4.1.2.6 Glass Transition 74
      4.1.2.7 Stress-Strain 75
    4.1.3 Fluids 80
    4.1.4 Thermal Conductivity 81
    4.1.5 Aging 81
  4.2 Failure Modes and Special Environmental Considerations 82
    4.2.1 Specific Design Considerations for Polymers in Out-of-Service Conditions 82
    4.2.2 Specific Design Considerations for Polymers in In-Service Conditions 82
      4.2.2.1 High Temperature 82
      4.2.2.2 Low Temperature 83
      4.2.2.3 Solar Radiation (UV) 83
      4.2.2.4 Thermal Temperature Cycling 83
      4.2.2.5 Cyclic Mechanical Load Cycling 83
      4.2.2.6 Humidity 84
5. General Reliability Design and Analysis Considerations 97
  5.1 Understanding Life Cycle Cost Concepts 97
  5.2 The System Design Process 110
  5.3 Design for Reliability 114
  5.4 Materials and Parts Selection and Control Strategies 115
  5.5 Reliability Physics 122
  5.6 Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) 125
  5.7 Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) 135
  5.8 Life Modeling and Testing 141
    5.8.1 Acceleration Factors Used in Life Models 143
    5.8.2 Accelerated Life Testing 150
    5.8.3 Highly Accelerated Testing 159
      5.8.3.1 Step-Stress Testing 160
      5.8.3.2 Progressive Stress Testing 162
      5.8.3.3 Highly Accelerated Life Testing (HALT) 163
      5.8.3.4 Highly Accelerated Stress Test (HAST) 166
    5.8.4 Design of Experiments 167
  5.9 Reliability Testing 177
    5.9.1 Reliability Growth Testing and Reliability Demonstration Testing 182
  5.10 Data Collection and Analysis 200
    5.10.1 Types and Sources of Data 215
  5.11 Failure Analysis 217
    5.11.1 Root Failure Cause Analysis 224
APPENDIX A: References Reviewed A-1