Mechanical Analysis and Other Specialized Techniques for Enhancing Reliability (MASTER)

  • Mechanical Analysis and Specialized Techniques to Enhance Reliability (MASTER) Publication

Mechanical Analysis and Other Specialized Techniques for Enhancing Reliability (MASTER)

Starting at: $100.00

MASTER provides a thorough, in-depth discussion of competing approaches to predict the reliability and expected life of mechanical parts and systems, including Statistical Analysis of relevant failure data, Physics of Failure modeling, Empirical Failure Models and Data, and other less common but acceptable methods.

The document also describes the mechanical reliability process, including the role of these predictions and other necessary testing and analyses for the production of reliable mechanical systems, and the nature of mechanical failures, including a discussion of underlying failure mechanisms.

MASTER is recommended either as standalone or as a companion to Quanterion’s NPRD-2016, FMD-2016 and LAST publications.

*Available as a PDF Download File and Hardcopy

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Product Description

In the recent history of engineering, extensive efforts have been placed on developing approaches to predict the reliability and expected life of mechanical parts and systems. While the available work is extensive, it often focuses upon narrow aspects or single approaches to reliability modeling. As such, it is difficult for an engineer with little or no experience in reliability to apply these methods to real-life situations. This document is specifically targeted to address this problem, outlining the competing approaches to part reliability predictions, including Statistical Analysis of relevant failure data, Physics of Failure modeling, Empirical Failure Models and Data, and other less common but acceptable methods. Furthermore, the document also describes the mechanical reliability process, including the role of these predictions and other necessary testing and analyses, for the production of reliable mechanical systems.

 

Additional information

ISBN:

978-1-933904-39-9

Product Format:

Download, Hardcopy

Table of Contents

1. Preliminary Reliability Concepts 1
  1.1. The Need for Reliability 1
    1.1.1. Customer Reliability Expectations 3
    1.1.2. Reliability as a Market Discriminator 4
    1.1.3. Related Reliability Issues 6
    1.1.4. Military and Commercial Reliability Needs 11
  1.2. Reliability and Maintainability Basics 12
    1.2.1. Reliability-Related Terminology 12
    1.2.2. The Bathtub Curve 14
    1.2.3. Reliability Metrics 15
    1.2.4. Availability 18
2. The Nature of Mechanical Reliability 21
  2.1. Mechanical, Electronic, Software and Human Reliability 21
    2.1.1. Software Reliability vs Hardware Reliability 21
    2.1.2. Human Reliability vs Hardware Reliability 24
    2.1.3. Mechanical Reliability vs Electronic Reliability 25
    2.1.4. System and Part Reliability 26
  2.2. The Nature of Mechanical Failures 28
    2.2.1. Yielding 28
    2.2.2. Elastic Deformation 29
    2.2.3. Brinelling 30
    2.2.4. False Brinelling 31
    2.2.5. Fretting 31
    2.2.6. Brittle Fracture 32
    2.2.7. Ductile Fracture 33
    2.2.8. Buckling 34
    2.2.9. Creep 35
    2.2.10. Galling 36
    2.2.11. Spalling 37
    2.2.12. Wear 38
    2.2.13. Fatigue 39
    2.2.14. Uniform Corrosion 42
    2.2.15. Galvanic Corrosion 44
    2.2.16. Crevice Corrosion 46
    2.2.17. Pitting Corrosion 47
    2.2.18. Stress Corrosion Cracking 48
    2.2.19. Corrosion Fatigue 50
    2.2.20. Intergranular Corrosion 51
    2.2.21. Selective Leaching 53
    2.2.22. Erosion Corrosion 53
    2.2.23. Exfoliation 55
    2.2.24. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion 56
    2.2.25. Filiform Corrosion 57
    2.2.26. Hydrogen Damage 58
    2.2.27. Hot Corrosion 59
    2.2.28. Radiation Damage 60
    2.2.29. Stress Relaxation 60
    2.2.30. Chemical Attack 61
3. The Mechanical Reliability Process 63
  3.1. Preliminary Analyses 66
    3.1.1. Define System Functionality 66
    3.1.2. Reliability Requirements 67
    3.1.3. Design Data 68
    3.1.4. Environmental Characterization 69
  3.2. Devolve Design/Reliability Block Diagrams into Individual Parts 69
    3.2.1. Assemble Parts List 70
    3.2.2. Reliability Block Diagram 70
4. Conduct System/Subsystem Analyses 81
  4.1. Collect Relevant Information 81
    4.1.1. Part Properties 81
    4.1.2. Reliability/Life Data 81
  4.2. Select the Appropriate Analysis Method 82
  4.3. Failure Modes and Effect Analysis 83
    4.3.1. Qualitative Failure Mode Severity Measures 83
    4.3.2. FMEA Report 84
  4.4. Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) 86
    4.4.1. Criticality Analysis 86
    4.4.2. FMECA Reports 90
  4.5. Performing an FMEA/FMECA 92
  4.6. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) 93
    4.6.1. Intended Use of FTA Results 93
    4.6.2. FTA vs FMEA/FMECA 94
    4.6.3. FTA Construction 95
    4.6.4. Analyzing the Fault Tree 99
    4.6.5. FTA Examples 104
  4.7. “Back of the Envelope” Calculation 107
  4.8. Analyze System Reliability Analysis Results 108
  4.9. Construct List of Items Requiring Analysis 108
  4.10. Allocate Part Reliability Goals 109
    4.10.1. Reliability Allocation 109
5. Part-Level Reliability Analyses 119
  5.1. Statistical Analysis Approach 120
    5.1.1. Evaluating and Ranking Data 122
    5.1.2. Selecting a Statistical Distribution 127
    5.1.3. The Weibull Analysis Process 128
    5.1.4. Distribution Analysis 137
    5.1.5. Select Alternate Plotting Paper for Poor Fit 140
    5.1.6. Performing Reliability Predictions 144
  5.2. Physics-of-Failure Modeling Approach 152
    5.2.1. PoF Reliability Prediction Process 153
    5.2.2. Applicable Models/Primary Failure Mechanisms 158
    5.2.3. Wear 159
    5.2.4. Creep 184
    5.2.5. Corrosion 193
    5.2.6. Summary and Recommendations 205
  5.3. Empirical Approaches to Reliability Predictions 208
    5.3.1. Determine Suitability of Empirical Approach 209
    5.3.2. Select Appropriate Statistical Distribution 213
    5.3.3. Surrogate Data Sources 215
    5.3.4. Empirical Mechanical Reliability Models 235
    5.3.5. NSWC Empirical Models 235
  5.4. Other Reliability Analysis Techniques 317
    5.4.1. Stress-Strength Interference 318
    5.4.2. Weibayes Analysis 340
6. Evaluating, Tracking, Fielding and Improving Mechanical Equipment 353
  6.1. System Predictions 353
    6.1.1. Reliability Metrics 354
    6.1.2. System Modeling Approaches to Reliability Predictions 355
    6.1.3. System Reliability Using Cut-Sets 359
    6.1.4. Parts Count Reliability Prediction 362
    6.1.5. Alternative Approaches to System Reliability Predictions 363
  6.2. Reliability Testing Approaches 363
    6.2.1. Failure Discovery Testing 364
    6.2.2. Life Testing 370
  6.3. Tracking Reliability – Failure Reporting, Analysis and Corrective Action Systems
(FRACAS)
375
  6.4. Producing and Fielding the System 378
    6.4.1. Controlling Production Reliability 379
    6.4.2. Production Controls 379
    6.4.3. Reliability Screening 379
    6.4.4. Stress Screening 381
    6.4.5. Collect Field Data 382
  6.5. Reliability Growth 383
    6.5.1. Growth Throughout the System’s Life-cycle 384
    6.5.2. Reliability Growth Process 387
    6.5.3. Reliability Growth Management 389
7. Mechanical Reliability Process Example 393
  7.1. Identify Part Modeling Techniques 393
    7.1.1. Collect Initial Data for System/Subsystem Failure Mode Analysis 394
    7.1.2. Conduct System/Subsystem Failure Mode Analysis 397
    7.1.3. Analyze Design Details and System Reliability Analysis Results 407
    7.1.4. Construct List of Items Requiring Analysis 408
    7.1.5. Allocate Part Reliability Goals from System Requirements 409
    7.1.6. Select Prediction Approach for Part Analysis 409
  7.2. Predict Part Reliability 410
    7.2.1. Example of Employing the Statistical Approach 411
    7.2.2. Example of Employing the Physics-of-Failure Approach 415
    7.2.3. Example of Employing the Empirical Approach 421
    7.2.4. Example of Employing the Stress-Strength Interference Approach 423
  7.3. Perform System Reliability Prediction 427
APPENDIX A: Environmental Characterization A-1
  A.1 Operational vs. Nonoperational Environments A-1
    A.1.1 Exposure to the External Environment A-4
    A.1.2 Micro-Environments A-8
  A.2 Environmental Factors A-9
    A.2.1 Temperature A-9
    A.2.2 Humidity A-11
    A.2.3 Radiation A-12
    A.2.4 Dust (Airborne and Ground) A-13
    A.2.5 Chemical Contaminants A-14
    A.2.6 Combined Effects A-15
  A.3 Environmental Loading Effects A-15
  A.4 Additional Considerations A-16
  A.5 Environmental Characterization Summary A-17
APPENDIX B: Relevant Statistical Concepts B-1
  B.1 Probability Distributions B-4
    B.1.1 Binomial Distribution B-8
    B.1.2 Poisson Distribution B-9
    B.1.3 Normal Distribution B-11
    B.1.4 Exponential Distribution B-13
    B.1.5 Gamma Distribution B-14
    B.1.6 Weibull Distribution B-17
  B.2 Statistical Hypothesis Testing B-21
    B.2.1 Hypothesis Testing for Reliability Acceptance B-29
    B.2.2 Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit B-33
    B.2.3 Kolmogorov-Smirnov Goodness-of-Fit Test B-35
  B.3 Parameter Estimation B-39
  B.4 Confidence Bounds B-43
APPENDIX C: Reliability Data Sources C-1
  C.1 Test/Field Data C-1
    C.1.1 Failure Reports/Maintenance Logs C-1
    C.1.2 Failure Reporting, Analysis and Corrective Action System (FRACAS) C-2
  C.2 Surrogate Data C-3
    C.2.1 Legacy Part/System Data C-3
    C.2.2 Nonelectronic Parts Reliability Data (NPRD-2011) C-3
    C.2.3 Failure Mode/Mechanism Distributions (FMD-1997) C-4
    C.2.4 Offshore Reliability Data (OREDA) Handbook C-5
    C.2.5 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission – Common Cause Failure Database C-6
    C.2.6 Other Reliability Data Sources C-7
    C.2.7 Electronic Part Failure Prediction C-7
  C.3 General Reliability Information C-8
APPENDIX D: Weibull Library D-1